The idea for special treatment of young talented athletes has started since the middle of 19th Century. The most famous systems are those of ex- Soviet Union, Easter Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Sweden and Finland. In the Eastern European Countries and the Soviet Union, the identification process of talented student - athletes started from the early stages of the primary school where selected athletes were sent to sport schools, academies or residential sport schools. A basic characteristic of this system has been the presence of universal policy of the training process for all schools, through a centrally driven process and a continuous link between inside- and outside- school sport organizations. One of the most famous systems of sport schools is applied in Finland. This is characterized by de-centralization, specialization of each school in specific sports, easy access of students to schools and high financial support. An interesting approach is applied in Australia which is characterized by the absence of a universal system of sport schools; instead there is a special program applied, aiming to assist young athletes to combine sports with academic education. In conclusion, the present review shows that the bases of a modern sport schools system is the acknowledgement of the talented athlete as a gifted individual who should be given the necessary opportunities for development, the strict school entry criteria process, the foundation of independent sport schools and the need for continuous scientific support of elite level young athletes.